Prof Dilip Menon Organisation: Centre for Indian Studies in Africa: University of Witwatersrand Position: There’s huge debate in Ghana now instigated by respected Charismatic Bishops, asking for the for the educational system to be altered for the current primary and junior high school system to Ordinary O and Advanced A levels. The bishops say the falling standards of education in the country can largely be attributed to the current system but the two major teacher unions have risen against their proposal. It’s a major talking point here now 2. Parliamentary processes have initiated to make recent tax cuts announced in the new government’s first budget. The announcement sent some importers and businesses into wild jubilation.
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Life in prison Death penalty Three laws currently provide for the status of marriage in South Africa. These are the Marriage Act Act 25 of , which provides for civil or religious opposite-sex marriages; the Recognition of Customary Marriages Act Act of , which provides for the civil registration of marriages solemnised according to the traditions of indigenous groups; and the Civil Union Act Act 17 of , which provides for opposite-sex and same-sex civil marriages, religious marriages and civil partnerships.
A person may only be married under one of these laws at any given time. Couples marrying in terms of the Civil Union Act may choose whether their union is registered as a marriage or a civil partnership.
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The earliest attested archaeological artifacts in Iran, like those excavated at Kashafrud and Ganj Par in northern Iran, confirm a human presence in Iran since the Lower Paleolithic. Elam, the most prominent of these civilizations, developed in the southwest alongside those in Mesopotamia , and continued its existence until the emergence of the Iranian empires. The advent of writing in Elam was paralleled to Sumer , and the Elamite cuneiform was developed since the third millennium BC.
Since the earliest second millennium BC, Assyrians settled in swaths of western Iran, and incorporated the region into their territories. Classical antiquity See also: By the second millennium BC, the ancient Iranian peoples arrived in what is now Iran from the Eurasian Steppe ,  rivaling the native settlers of the region. From the late 10th to the late seventh century BC, the Iranian peoples, together with the “pre-Iranian” kingdoms, fell under the domination of the Assyrian Empire , based in northern Mesopotamia.
The conquest of Media was a result of what is called the Persian Revolt. The brouhaha was initially triggered by the actions of Median ruler Astyages , and was quickly spread to other provinces, as they allied with the Persians. Later conquests under Cyrus and his successors expanded the empire to include Lydia , Babylon , Egypt , parts of the Balkans and Eastern Europe proper, as well as the lands to the west of the Indus and Oxus rivers.
Cyrus entered Babylon and presented himself as a traditional Mesopotamian monarch. Subsequent Achaemenid art and iconography reflect the influence of the new political reality in Mesopotamia. The Achaemenid Empire is noted for the release of the Jewish exiles in Babylon , building infrastructures such as the Royal Road and the Chapar postal service , and the use of an official language , Imperial Aramaic , throughout its territories.
Following the premature death of Alexander, Iran came under the control of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire.
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Visual arts In order to answer whether there is an aesthetic , iconographic, or stylistic unity to the visually perceptible arts of Islamic peoples, it is first essential to realize that no ethnic or geographical entity was Muslim from the beginning. There is no Islamic art, therefore, in the way there is a Chinese art or a French art. Nor is it simply a period art, like Gothic art or Baroque art, for once a land or an ethnic entity became Muslim, it remained Muslim, a small number of exceptions such as Spain or Sicily notwithstanding.
Political and social events transformed a number of lands with a variety of earlier histories into Muslim lands. But because early Islam as such did not possess or propagate an art of its own, each area could continue, in fact often did continue, whatever modes of creativity it had acquired. It may then not be appropriate at all to talk about the visual arts of Islamic peoples, and one should instead consider separately each of the areas that became Muslim:
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The country has a diverse landscape and lots to offer in terms of sceneries. One of the main attractions in Algeria is the Saharan region with its never-ending sand and mysterious and lively cities within. Algiers, the capital city of the country, was founded by the Ottomans and is rife with beautiful historical architecture. The ancient Casbah is a winding urban maze with streets flowing through the old town like streams. The country boasts of an expansive coastline of Atlantic Ocean beauty and a beautiful blend of grasslands, savannas, tropical forests, among others.
Angola is among the fastest-growing economies in the world and so is Luanda, its capital city.
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Battle of Karbala, Brooklyn Museum Husayn, Ali’s younger son and brother to Hasan, initially resisted calls to lead the Muslims against Muawiyah and reclaim the caliphate. Yazid asked Husayn to swear allegiance bay’ah to him. Ali’s faction, having expected the caliphate to return to Ali’s line upon Muawiyah’s death, saw this as a betrayal of the peace treaty and so Husayn rejected this request for allegiance.
There was a groundswell of support in Kufa for Husayn to return there and take his position as caliph and imam, so Husayn collected his family and followers in Medina and set off for Kufa. En route to Kufa, he was blocked by an army of Yazid’s men which included people from Kufa near Karbala modern Iraq , and Husayn and approximately 72 of his family and followers were killed in the Battle of Karbala. They view Husayn as the defender of Islam from annihilation at the hands of Yazid I.
Husayn is the last imam following Ali whom all Shiah sub-branches mutually recognize. Imamate of the Ahl al-Bayt[ edit ] Main article: Imamah Shia doctrine Zulfiqar with and without the shield. Muhammad gave them to Ali, saying that one of them was Zulfiqar , which became the famous sword of Ali and a later symbol of Shiism. Early Sunnis traditionally held that the political leader must come from the tribe of Muhammad—namely, the Quraysh tribe.
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Moza Moyo If you want to learn more about the history and origins of a place or a country, museums always offer enlightening insight through a collection of artefacts and other objects. Africa is home to countless museums that vividly tell the story of the continent — the painful past, the rich history, the powerful art, and the fascinating discoveries.
From Mauritius to Senegal and Ethiopia and all the way up to Egypt, we have selected a few museums that will offer you an look into the vast and diverse history and culture of Africa. The metre long island used to be home to more than 20 slave houses during the Atlantic slave trade.
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Photo by Sabelo Mkhabela. Revered Cape Town-based hip-hop artist and poet Ndlulamthi recently released his sophomore album, Hard Livings , seven years after his debut, Isibhilivane. Ndlulamthi’s music is mostly centered around social consciousness as is the case with most spaza artists’. For instance, in , he released the single ” Andivot i,” in which he gave his reasons for not hitting the ballots during the municipal elections.
The song is still referenced by the streets of Cape Town during any kind of election. In Hard Livings, the artist shares vignettes of living in the black townships of Cape Town. He touches on mob justice “Abahlali” , crime “Skelem Tsotsi” , gun violence “Gun Dubula” , fatherhood “Usengu Tatam” , and online dating “Diary” among other topics.
Although Dabiq, a town in relatively flat countryside northeast of Aleppo and close to the Turkish border, holds little strategic value, Isil is expected to defend it fiercely because of its ideological importance. Dabiq Isil has in recent weeks sent several hundred of its more experienced fighters to defend the town, which it has held since August One rebel commander said their advance had been slowed because the militants had heavily mined the area.
More than 21 fighters were killed and 35 wounded in the booby traps and mortar fire in the village of Turkman Barih, some three miles from Dabiq. The deaths toll among the Syrian rebels was the highest since Turkey sent troops and tanks into Syria in August.
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Who are the Cape Coloureds of South Africa? By Razib Khan June 30, 8: They speak Afrikaans and generally worship in Reformed Christian churches, but exhibit discernible non-European ancestry, in particular African ancestry. Barack Obama has obvious mixed ancestry but he is accept as fully black racially by both black and white Americans. In South Africa someone who looked like Obama obviously would not be white, but, they might be Coloured, as this group exhibits a wide range of appearance, as is the norm among very mixed populations.
In the course of research I stumbled upon the fact that the past two winners of Miss South Africa are Coloured, or at least likely Coloured as there is some ambiguity.
O, Muslim town of Bethlehem…
Afro Combs Did you know that afro combs were used in ancient African civilizations? Burial pits in the Nile Valley have been the source of rare and unique artifacts, dating back more than 6, years. Founded in , the Iziko South African museum houses collections in zoology, paleontology, and archaeology. This collection ranges from fossils up to million years old to insects that were caught in present day.
It features a statue of Gandhi dressed in the robes of a legal attorney, paying tribute to his role as a lawyer during his time living in Johannesburg. Ironworking In the lush forests of modern-day Central African Republic, sometime between and BC, craftsmen are believed to have discovered iron.
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It is written in His Word. And it is all going accordingly, just as He said. I do not serve that which you serve, nor do you serve him whom I serve. Nor am I going to serve that which you serve, nor are you going to serve Him whom I serve: You shall have your religion and I shall have my religion. Therefore strike off their heads and strike off every fingertip of them. The time is coming that whoever kills you will think that he offers God service, and these things they will do to you because they have not known the Father nor Me.
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O, Muslim town of Bethlehem On Manger Square, the Church of the Nativity stands in the pale gloom of dusk, its doors open to passing pilgrims. But inside, the nave is empty of visitors and the collection boxes depleted of coins.
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South African Orientation Identification. South Africa is the only nation-state named after its geographic location; there was a general agreement not to change the name after the establishment of a constitutional nonracial democracy in The country came into being through the Act of Union that united two British colonies and two independent republics into the Union of South Africa.
After the establishment of the first colonial outpost of the Dutch East India Company at Cape Town in , South Africa became a society officially divided into colonizer and native, white and nonwhite, citizen and subject, employed and indentured, free and slave. The result was a fragmented national identity symbolized and implemented by the white minority government’s policy of racial separation.
Economic status has paralleled political and social segregation and inequality, with the black African, mixed-race “Coloured” , and Indian and Pakistani “Asian” population groups experiencing dispossession and a lack of legal rights. Since the first nonracial elections in , the ruling African National Congress ANC has attempted to overcome this legacy and create unified national loyalties on the basis of equal legal status and an equitable allocation of resources.
South Africa has an area of , square miles 1, , square kilometers. It lies at the southern end of the African continent, bordered on the north by Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, and Swaziland; on the east and south by the Indian Ocean; and on the west by the Atlantic Ocean. The independent country of Lesotho lies in the middle of east central South Africa. Among the prominent features of the topography is a plateau that covers almost two thirds of the center of the country.